Monday, December 22, 2014

A Baltic Christmas Day 22 - Lithuanian Christmas Eve Biscuits | Kūčiukai

June writes at My Food Odyssey, about her life in the Lithuanian countryside, her travels, but mostly about food. A supporter of using local ingredients and cooking from scratch, June was kind enough to share this recipe for traditional Lithuanian Christmas Eve cookies for Day 22 of 24 Days of a Baltic Christmas.

Christmas is a time for tradition. What’s fascinating to me is how much those traditions vary from country to country and even from family to family. Some children post their letter to Santa up the chimney, some through the regular mail. Some leave out milk and cookies for Santa, but in our house it was a bottle of Guinness and a few mince pies. (Clever ole Dad!) Some traditions don’t believe in Santa at all.

Being somewhat food obsessed, to me the most interesting differences are centred round the foods we eat and how we prepare and serve those foods. In Ireland, the main Christmas feast is served on Christmas Day and typically includes roast turkey, baked ham, boiled Brussels sprouts and roast potatoes. Sweet treats include iced Christmas cake, brandy-laced Christmas pudding and mince pies. Most of these foods are not traditional used in Lithuanian Christmas cooking and in many cases are impossible to source here.

In Lithuania, the main celebration is on Christmas Eve. The meal, known as Kūčios, consists of 12 meatless dishes and typically includes herring, sauerkraut, potatoes, mushrooms, beetroot, carrots and stuffed eggs. For dessert there is a stodgy cranberry drink known as kisielius and bite-sized biscuits called kūčiukai (koo-chuck-ay) made with poppy seeds.

Kūčiukai are typically served with a glass of milk. Old traditions dictated that no animal products, including dairy products, should be consumed on Christmas Eve and so poppy seed milk was used in place of dairy milk. In many regions this custom has now petered out and dairy milk is used. In some homes the biscuits are soaked in milk before eating, in others the milk is served as a drink on the side.

Kūčiukai are widely available in the supermarkets here, but they are generally mass-produced and full of unnecessary ingredients. They are incredibly simple to make and only require a small number of ingredients so this year I decided to make my own. I always feel that the tradition of making the food is as important as the food itself. We always made our own Christmas cake and pudding and now that I’ve chosen to live here in Lithuania I want to start a new tradition of always making my own kūčiukai.

I use butter in my kūčiukai. Traditionally, only foods typically available during a Lithuanian winter could be used in preparing dishes for the Christmas Eve feast. To me, butter is one of the oldest and most natural cooking fats and fits well with this tradition. Many recipes I found both online and in books used butter as an ingredient. However, if you prefer to stay with the tradition of avoiding dairy products while still using traditional Lithuanian ingredients, I suggest replacing the butter in the recipe with 25 mls (2 Tbsp) of rapeseed or sunflower oil.

Note: Poppy seeds are widely available in Lithuania, particularly at this time of year. They also appear to be widely available in the US. In Ireland I’m not sure if they are available in supermarkets, but they should be available in Health Food stores or in Polish or Lithuanian supermarkets, if you happen to live near one.

Lithuanian Christmas Eve Biscuits | Kūčiukai

        Servings: About 100 biscuits
        Time: Prep 20 mins | Bake 18 mins
        Difficulty: Easy


250 g | 9 oz plain flour (all-purpose flour)
5 g | 1 tsp salt
7 g | ¼ oz fresh yeast or 3.5 g | ⅛ oz dried yeast
90 g | 3 oz sugar
20 g | 2 Tbsp poppy seeds
25 g | 2 Tbsp butter
90 mls | 3 fl oz warm water *
* The water should be just warm enough to touch with your finger for at least 10 seconds without feeling hot. I generally use 1/3 boiling water and 2/3 cold water to get just the right temperature.


1.    Preheat the oven to 180˚ C (355˚ F)
2.    Place the flour, salt, sugar, poppy seeds, butter and yeast in the large bowl of your food processor and mix on full power for about 20 seconds to thoroughly combine the ingredients and to distribute the yeast and poppy seeds.
3.    Pour the water into the food processor and mix on full power for about 1 minute. The mix should come together into a ball in about 20 seconds but continuing to mix for a little longer will help to knead the dough. After 1 minute the dough should be soft and slightly sticky to touch.
4.    Transfer the dough to a lightly floured board and knead for about 1 minute to form into a smooth round. Place the dough in a lightly floured bowl, cover with a clean tea towel and leave in a warm place for at about two hours to rise.
5.    When the dough has doubled in size (or when you run out of patience waiting!), transfer the dough to a lightly floured board and cut into 4 pieces.
6.    Roll each piece of dough into a long sausage about 2 cm wide. Ensure the dough is the same thickness along the full length of the roll so that the biscuits will all be a similar size and cook evenly. Note that the roll will end up being about 40 cm long so make sure you have enough space on your board. Alternatively, use your worktop to roll the dough or cut the dough into smaller pieces before rolling.
7.    Cut each roll evenly into 2 cm pieces. You should get about 25 pieces per roll.
8.    Transfer the pieces to a lightly floured baking sheet. Leave a small gap (about ½ cm) between each piece as they will expand a little during baking.
9.    Bake for 15-18 minutes until all the biscuits are golden brown and a little crisp. They will crisp further as they cool so don’t overcook them.
10. Cool on the baking sheet before transferring to an airtight jar or biscuit tin.
11. Enjoy with a cold glass of milk or with your favourite coffee.

Thank you to June, for letting me feature this recipe on 24 Days of a Baltic Christmas! (This article first appeared on You can also find June on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest. Tomorrow a trip to the Talinn and Rīga Christmas markets with Heather!

1 comment:

  1. Hello, Hope you are having a wonderful December and will have a blessed Christmas… This is such a joyful time of year for so many—but it’s also the time when others experience a deep loneliness, and struggle during the holidays for many reasons. SO—today I ask you to stop what you are doing for a few minutes and say a prayer for someone you know who might be experiencing a hard time now… OR—better still, send them a card or give them a call. It will mean the world to them.

    As I've said before, I have enjoyed reading about your culture and traditions... The biscuits/cookies look delicious.

    Merry Christmas to you and yours.


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